How to Pronounce Vitiligo. Vitiligo is a condition that causes the loss of skin color in blotches. The word vitiligo comes from the Latin word for “scallop,” which is a type of shellfish.
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Vitiligo is a condition that causes the loss of skin color in patches. The exact cause of vitiligo is unknown, but it may be related to an autoimmune disorder. There is no cure for vitiligo, but treatments are available to help improve the appearance of the skin.
The correct way to pronounce vitiligo
Vitiligo is a long-term condition where pale, white patches develop on the skin due to the loss of pigment. It’s thought to affect around 1% of the world’s population. While it can occur at any age, it’s most likely to start in childhood or early adulthood.
The correct way to pronounce vitiligo is “vuh-til-uh-go”.
The different types of vitiligo
There are two types of vitiligo: segmental vitiligo and non-segmental vitiligo.
Segmental vitiligo is when the white patches of skin affect only certain areas of the body, and is often associated with nerve damage. This type of vitiligo typically appears before the age of 20.
Non-segmental vitiligo is when the white patches of skin affect many areas of the body, and usually starts after the age of 20. This type of vitiligo can be further divided into three sub-types: focal, generalized, and universal.
Focal vitiligo is when there are one or more small patches of skin affected by vitiligo. Generalized vitiligo is when there are multiple large patches of skin affected by vitiligo. Universal vitiligo is when nearly the entire body is affected by Vitiligo.
The causes of vitiligo
There are several theories about what causes vitiligo, but the exact cause is still unknown. One theory is that vitiligo is an autoimmune disorder. In people with vitiligo, the immune system may mistakenly attack and destroy healthy cells. Another theory is that vitiligo may be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Vitiligo may also be associated with other autoimmune disorders, such as thyroid disease, diabetes, and Addison’s disease.
The symptoms of vitiligo
The first symptom of vitiligo is usually the appearance of pale patches of skin in areas where normal skin color has disappeared. The patches are more noticeable in people with dark skin. They can occur anywhere on the body, including inside the mouth and nose, but they most commonly appear on:
-exposed areas of the body, such as the face, neck, hands, and arms
-areas around body openings, such as the eyes, nostrils, genitals, and navel
-skin that is exposed to sunlight
The lesions are initially small and round or oval shaped. They may expand over time and eventually join together to form larger patches. The border between normal skin and affected skin is usually well defined. Lesions may be lighter or darker than the surrounding skin. In some cases, lesions may re-pigment spontaneously without treatment.
The treatment of vitiligo
There is no cure for vitiligo, but there are treatments that can improve the appearance of the skin.
Topical corticosteroids are the most common treatment for vitiligo. They are available as a cream or ointment and are applied to the affected area of skin. Topical corticosteroids can be used to treat small areas of vitiligo or to cover large areas of affected skin.
Other topical treatments for vitiligo include:
-Calcineurin inhibitors, such as tacrolimus and pimecrolimus, which are applied to the skin and work by suppressing the immune system. These medications may cause side effects, such as burning, stinging, itching, redness, or irritation of the treated skin.
-Topical immunomodulators, such as imiquimod, which stimulate the immune system and promote repigmentation of the skin. These medications may cause side effects, such as itching, redness, pain, or swelling at the application site.
-PUVA therapy, which uses a drug called psoralen that makes the skin more sensitive to ultraviolet A (UVA) light. Psoralen is taken either orally or topically before exposure to UVA light in a phototherapy unit. This treatment can be effective in repigmenting patches of vitiligo; however, it may cause side effects, such as nausea, headache, burning eyes, and increase your risk of skin cancer.
The prognosis of vitiligo
There is no cure for vitiligo. The goal of treatment is to improve the appearance of the skin by restoring its color. Treatment may be able to stop or slow the progression of vitiligo, but it’s unlikely to reverse the process.
There are a number of treatment options available, but none are guaranteed to be effective. Some people with vitiligo may not require treatment, as they may be comfortable with the way their skin looks.
Topical treatments are applied to the skin and are usually the first line of treatment for vitiligo. They can be used alone or in combination with other treatments.
Corticosteroids are anti-inflammatory drugs that can be used to treat vitiligo. They come in the form of creams, ointments, or lotions and are usually applied once or twice a day. Steroids can cause side effects, such as thinning of the skin, so they’re usually only used for a short period of time.
Calcineurin inhibitors (such as tacrolimus and pimecrolimus) are immunosuppressive drugs that can be used to treat vitiligo. They come in the form of creams or ointments and are usually applied twice a day. Calcineurin inhibitors can cause side effects, such as burning, itching, and redness at the site of application. They should not be used on large areas of skin or on skin that will be exposed to sunlight.
Light therapy (phototherapy) involves exposing the skin to ultraviolet (UV) light under medical supervision. The most common type of light therapy uses UVB light waves. ultraviolet A (UVA) light waves may also be used alone or in combination with UVBlight waves . Narrowband UVB therapy is considered the standard treatment for vitiligo and is often combined with other treatments, such as corticosteroids or calcineurin inhibitors . Light therapy can be time-consuming (you may need to go for sessions three times a week), and it can cause side effects, such as burns, redness , itching , blistering ,and changes in skin color . For these reasons, light therapy is usually reserved for children and adults who have not had success with other treatments . Excimer laser therapy – which uses targeted UVB light – is a newer type of light therapy that may be more effective than traditional phototherapy . It’s usually reserved for people who have small patches of vitiligo that don’t respond well to other treatments . SurgerySurgery may be an option for people who have limited areas of pigmentation loss . Surgical options include: * Skin grafts : In this procedure , healthy skin from another area of your body (usually your thigh , buttocks , arm , or back )is surgically removed and transplanted to the affected area . There is a riskof scarring with this procedure.* Transplantationof melanocytes : In this procedure , melanocytes — cells that produce pigment —are transplanted from a healthy areaof your bodytothe affectedarea . The melanocytes are transplanted using a needle injected into your skin(punch biopsy ), afollicular unit transplant(also called micrografting ), ordermabrasion . Melanocyte transplants carrya riskof infectionand scarring.* Depigmentation: Depigmentationis ablistering agentthat destroys pigmented cellsand causes themto fade fromthe skin permanently It’s anoptionfor peoplewho have widespreadvitiligowith large areasof depigmentationwho cannothave surgeryor who do not wantto undergo surgery.* Depigmentationmay take up totwo yearsandcan cause some side effectssuch asthinningofthe layerof skinthataffectedbyskin cancer(dermis), itching,, reddeningoftheskin,, burning eyes,,andnumbnessoffingersand toes.* Surgery carriesa small riskof infectionand scarring..